e-Technologies

TOP 10 EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE 21ST CENTURY

According to winston.com, emerging technology is a term generally used to describe a new technology, but it may also refer to the continuing development of an existing technology; it can have slightly different meaning when used in different areas, such as media, business, science, or education. The term commonly refers to technologies that are currently developing, or that are expected to be available within the next five to ten years, and is usually reserved for technologies that are creating, or are expected to create, significant social or economic effects.

Emerging technologies are normally characterized by relatively fast growth, coherence, prominent impact, uncertainty and ambiguity. As robotics and artificial intelligence develop further, even many skilled jobs may be threatened. Technologies such as machine learning may ultimately allow computers to do many knowledge-based jobs that require significant education.

Emerging technologies include a variety of technologies such as educational technology, information technology, nanotechnology, biotechnology, cognitive science, psycho-technology, robotics, and artificial intelligence.

Let’s take a close look at the significance and future impact of top ten emerging technologies of the 21st century;

iot

Internet of Things (IoT)

IoT is the interconnection via the Internet of computing devices embedded in everyday objects, enabling them to send and receive data. It is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.

IoT has wide applications in smart homes, agriculture, transportation, military, manufacturing, medical and healthcare.

ai-

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the sub intelligence exhibited by machines or software, and the branch of computer science that develops machines and software with animal-like intelligence. Major AI researchers and textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents," where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success.
The central functions (or goals) of AI research include reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects.
AI is already significantly impacting the way customers interact with businesses via intelligent websites and robots, and these tools are becoming increasingly commoditized and integrated into daily work.
The largest impacts across all industries—from retail to healthcare, hospitality to finance—are felt when AI improves data security, decision-making speed and accuracy, and employee output and training, With more capable staff, better-qualified sales leads, more efficient issue resolution, and systems that feed actual data back in for future process and product improvements, companies employing AI technologies can use resources with far greater efficiency. Best of all, as investment and competition increase in the AI realm, costs are reduced.

3D Printing

3D printing offers a solution for the low volume manufacturing of complex parts, as well as fast local production of difficult-to-find products. Combined with Internet technology, 3D printing would allow for digital blueprints of virtually any material product to be sent instantly to another person to be produced on the spot, making purchasing a product online almost instantaneous. As more affordable products become available, opportunities for this industry will continue to grow.
3D printing has been adopted by students, entrepreneurs, hobbyists, and massive factories. Because 3D printing allows for the transformation of a digital design into a tangible object, a wide array of uses have been found. Physicians can print physical models of portions of patient anatomy to better visualize procedures and demonstrate practice. Engineers in factories can create custom jigs and fixtures that both save time and reduce injury during the manufacturing process. Communities foster makerspaces (collaborative work spaces) that teach STEM skills and aid in the start-up of new businesses, thereby creating new jobs and local opportunities.
3d
serverless

Serverless or Cloud Computing

Serverless computing is a cloud-computing execution model in which the cloud provider runs the server, and dynamically manages the allocation of machine resources. Pricing is based on the actual amount of resources consumed by an application, rather than on pre-purchased units of capacity.Serverless can be more cost-effective than renting or purchasing a fixed quantity of servers, which generally involves significant periods of underutilization or idle time. It can even be more cost-efficient than provisioning an autoscaling group, due to more efficient bin-packing of the underlying machine resources.

This can be described as pay-as-you-go computing or bare-code as you are charged based solely upon the time and memory allocated to run your code; without associated fees for idle time.

Immediate cost benefits are related to the lack of operating systems costs, including: licences, installation, dependencies, maintenance, support, and patching.

VR

Virtual Reality (VR)/Augmented Reality (AR)

Virtual Reality (VR)/Augmented Reality (AR)Virtual Reality technology immerses users in a completely virtual environment that is generated by a computer. The most advanced VR experiences even provide freedom of movement – users can move in a digital environment and hear sounds. Moreover, special hand controllers can be used to enhance VR experiences.

With VR, users experience artificial sounds and sights and feel as if they’re in a digital world. Imagine opening your eyes and seeing a computer-generated world all around you; you can move in this environment and even interact with it. That’s what virtual reality is like. Special VR headsets are used to immerse users in virtual reality.

In Augmented Reality, users see and interact with the real world while digital content is added to it. If you own a modern smartphone, you can easily download an AR app and try this technology. There’s a different way to experience augmented reality, though – with special AR headsets, such as Google Glass, where digital content is displayed on a tiny screen in front of a user’s eye.

In other words, if you see the real world supplemented with digital objects, that’s AR. Imagine you want to buy a piece of furniture – a chair, for example. Augmented reality technology can help you check how different chairs will look in your room and pick the one that fits best.

VR and AR are widely used in gaming industry. It is gradually finding new applications in movie and entertainment industry, education, communication, real estate, healthcare, marketing/advertising, travel industry, manufacturing, etc.

Blockchain

Blockchain is a distributed ledger, which simply means that a ledger is spread across the network among all peers in the network, and each peer holds a copy of the complete ledger.
By design, a blockchain is resistant to modification of the data. It is "an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way". For use as a distributed ledger, a blockchain is typically managed by a peer-to-peer network collectively adhering to a protocol for inter-node communication and validating new blocks. Once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without alteration of all subsequent blocks, which requires consensus of the network majority. Although blockchain records are not unalterable, blockchains may be considered secure by design and exemplify a distributed computing system with high byzantine (very complex) fault tolerance.

Blockchain technology can be integrated into multiple areas. The primary use of blockchains today is as a distributed ledger for cryptocurrencies, smart contracts, financial services, supply chain logistics and supply chain management.
Blockchain
robotics

Robotics

Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, and/or cognition.
Robotics is automating routine processes by using machines to make businesses faster, less expensive, and more efficient. A robot is a programmable machine that physically interacts with the world around it and is capable of carrying out a complex series of actions autonomously or semi-

autonomously.

Robotics now have emerging opportunities and applications in collaborative robots, telepresence (use of virtual reality tech) robots, warehousing and logistics automation, healthcare robots, self-driving vehicles, etc.
drone.

Drone

An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard. UAVs are a component of an unmanned aircraft system (UAS); which include a UAV, a ground-based controller, and a system of communications between the two.
The flight of UAVs may operate with various degrees of autonomy: either under remote control by a human operator or autonomously by on-board computers. Compared to manned aircraft, UAVs were originally used for missions too "dull, dirty or dangerous" for humans. While they originated mostly in military applications, their use is rapidly expanding to commercial, scientific, recreational, agricultural, and other applications, such as policing, peacekeeping, and surveillance, product deliveries, aerial photography, agriculture, anti-smuggling, and drone racing.
Civilian UAVs now vastly outnumber military UAVs, with estimates of over a million sold by 2018, so they can be seen as an early commercial application of autonomous things, to be followed by the autonomous car and home robots.
5G

5G

Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, and/or cognition.
Robotics is automating routine processes by using machines to make businesses faster, less expensive, and more efficient. A robot is a programmable machine that physically interacts with the world around it and is capable of carrying out a complex series of actions autonomously or semi-

autonomously.

Robotics now have emerging opportunities and applications in collaborative robots, telepresence (use of virtual reality tech) robots, warehousing and logistics automation, healthcare robots, self-driving vehicles, etc.
Biometrics

Biometrics

Biometrics is the technical term for body measurements and calculations. It refers to metrics related to human characteristics. Biometrics authentication (or realistic authentication) is used in computer science as a form of identification and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance.

More traditional means of access control include token-based identification systems, such as a driver's license or passport, and knowledge-based identification systems, such as a password or personal identification number (PIN). Since biometric identifiers are unique to individuals, they are more reliable in verifying identity than token and knowledge-based methods.

Biometric identifiers are the distinctive, measurable characteristics used to label and describe individuals. Biometric identifiers are often categorized as physiological versus behavioural characteristics. Physiological characteristics are related to the shape of the body. Examples include, but are not limited to fingerprint, palm veins, face recognition, DNA, palm print, hand geometry, iris recognition, retina and odour/scent. Behavioural characteristics are related to the pattern of behaviour of a person, including but not limited to typing rhythm, gait, and voice. Some researchers have coined the term behavioumetrics to describe the latter class of biometrics.

Biometrics—including face, fingerprint, and retina scans—is becoming mainstream methods for verifying identity. These methods will form the secure foundation for solutions delivered by IT companies moving forward.

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